Origin – Compton, South Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Genres – Hip hop
Years active – 1986–1991, 1999-2000
Labels – Ruthless, Priority, EMI
Associated acts – Above the Law, Bobby Jimmy and the Critters, C.I.A., Fila Fresh Crew, J. J. Fad, Snoop Dogg, The D.O.C., World Class Wreckin’ Cru
Past members – Arabian Prince
N.W.A (an acronym for Niggaz Wit Attitudes) was an American hip hop group from Compton, California, widely considered one of the seminal acts of the gangsta rap and west coast hip hop sub-genres, sometimes credited as the most important group in the history of rap music. Active from 1986 to 1991, the rap group endured controversy due to the explicit lyrics that many considered to be disrespectful to women, and glorifying drugs and crime. The group was subsequently banned from many mainstream American radio stations. In spite of this, the group has sold over 10 million units in the United States alone.
The original lineup consisted of Arabian Prince, DJ Yella, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, and Ice Cube. MC Ren joined in 1988, with Arabian Prince leaving the group later that same year. Ice Cube left in December of 1989 over royalty disputes. Several members would later become platinum-selling solo artists in the 1990s. Their debut album Straight Outta Compton marked the beginning of the new gangsta rap era as the production and social commentary in their lyrics were revolutionary within the genre.Rolling Stone ranked N.W.A number 83 on their list of the “100 Greatest Artists of All Time.” In October 2012, N.W.A were nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Formation and “Panic Zone” (1987–1988)
The group was assembled by Compton-based Eazy-E, who co-founded Ruthless Records with Jerry Heller. Initially, N.W.A consisted of Eazy-E and Dr. Dre, who in turn brought DJ Yella on board. Dre and Yella were both formerly members of the World Class Wreckin’ Cru, as DJs and producers. Together with fellow producer Arabian Prince, Ice Cube was added to the roster after he had started out as a rapper for the group “C.I.A.” Ruthless released the single “Panic Zone” in 1987 with Macola Records, which was later included on the compilation album N.W.A. and the Posse. N.W.A was still in its developing stages, and is only credited on three of the eleven tracks, notably the uncharacteristic record “Panic Zone,” “8-Ball,” “Dopeman,” which marked the first collaboration of Arabian Prince, DJ Yella, Dr. Dre, and Ice Cube. Mexican rapper Krazy-Dee co-wrote “Panic Zone,” which was originally called “Hispanic Zone,” but the title was later changed when Dr. Dre advised Krazy-Dee that the word “hispanic” would hinder sales. Also included was Eazy-E’s solo track “Boyz-n-the-Hood.” In 1988, rapper MC Ren joined the group.
Straight Outta Compton (1988–1989)
N.W.A released their debut studio album, Straight Outta Compton, in 1988. With its famous opening salvo of three tracks, the group reflected the rising anger of the urban youth. The opening song “Straight Outta Compton” introduced the group, “Fuck tha Police” protested police brutality and racial profiling, and “Gangsta Gangsta” painted the worldview of the inner-city youth. While the group was later credited with pioneering the burgeoning sub genre of gangsta rap, N.W.A referred to their music as “reality rap.” Dr. Dre and DJ Yella, as HighPowered Productions, composed the beats for each song, with Dre making occasional rapping appearances. Ice Cube and MC Ren wrote most of the group’s lyrics, including “Fuck tha Police,” perhaps the group’s most notorious song, which brought them into conflict with various law enforcement agencies. Under pressure from Focus on the Family, Milt Ahlerich, an assistant director of the FBI, sent a letter to Ruthless and its distributing company Priority Records, advising the rappers that “advocating violence and assault is wrong and we in the law enforcement community take exception to such action.” This letter can still be seen at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio. Policemen refused to provide security for the group’s concerts, hurting their plans to tour. Nonetheless, the FBI’s letter only served to draw more publicity to the group.
Straight Outta Compton was also one of the first albums to adhere to the new Parental Advisory label scheme, then still in its early stages: the label at the time consisted of “WARNING: Moderate impact coarse language and/or themes” only. However, the taboo nature of N.W.A’s music was the most important factor of its mass appeal. Media coverage compensated for N.W.A’s lack of airplay and their album eventually went double platinum. One month after Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E’s solo debut Eazy-Duz-It was released. The album was dominated by Eazy’s persona—MC Ren was the only guest rapper—but behind the scenes it was a group effort. Music was handled by Dr. Dre and DJ Yella; the lyrics were largely written by MC Ren, with contributions from Ice Cube and The D.O.C. The album was another double platinum success for Ruthless (in addition to girl group J.J. Fad in 1988 and singer Michel’le in 1989). 1989 saw the re-issue of N.W.A and the Posse and Straight Outta Compton on CD, and the release of The D.O.C.’s No One Can Do It Better. His album was essentially a collaboration with Dr. Dre and notably free of “gangsta rap” content, however including the N.W.A posse cut “The Grand Finalé.” It would become another #1 album for the record label.
“100 Miles And Runnin'” and Niggaz4Life (1989–1991)
Ice Cube left in December 1989 over royalty disputes; having written almost half of the lyrics on Straight Outta Compton himself, he felt he was not getting a fair share of the money and profits. He wasted little time putting together his solo debut, 1990’s AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted, but he avoided mentioning his former label mates. N.W.A’s title track from their 1990 EP “100 Miles and Runnin'”, however, included a diss of Ice Cube: “We started with five, but yo / One couldn’t take it—So now it’s four / Cuz the fifth couldn’t make it.” The video for the song depicted the remaining members of N.W.A together in a jail cell, while an Ice Cube look-alike is released. Also heard on the EP (which found its way on the Efil4zaggin CD re-issue) was “Real Niggaz,” a full-blown diss on Ice Cube where the remaining members accuse him of cowardice, and question his authenticity, longevity and originality: “How the fuck you think a rapper lasts / With your ass sayin’ shit that was said in the past / Yo, be original, your shit is sloppy / Get off the dick, you motherfuckin’ carbon-copy,” and “We started out with too much cargo / So I’m glad we got rid of Benedict Arnold, yo” The song “100 Miles and Runnin'” was Dr. Dre’s final uptempo recording, which had been a common feature of late 1980s hip hop. After this, he focused on a midtempo, synthesizer based sound which would become known as G-funk, starting with “Alwayz Into Somethin'” from Efil4zaggin in 1991. The G-funk style dominated both the West and East Coast hip hop music scene for several years to come. N.W.A is referenced on Ice Cube’s 1990 EP, Kill at Will, where he name-checks his former group (likely in a mocking manner) on the song “Jackin’ For Beats.” On “I Gotta Say What Up!!!,” Ice Cube gives shout-outs to his rap peers at the time, among them Public Enemy, the Geto Boys, and Sir Jinx. At the end of the track, in what appears to be an on-the-phone interview, Ice Cube is asked, “Since you went solo, whatever happened to the rest of your crew?” and the phone is abruptly hung up on the interviewer.
The group’s second full-length release, 1991’s Efil4zaggin (“Niggaz4Life” spelled backwards), re-established the band in the face of Ice Cube’s continued solo success. The album is considered by many Dr. Dre’s finest production work, and it heralded the beginning of the G-Funk era. It also showed a clear animosity towards their former member, and derogatory references to Ice Cube are found in several songs. The interlude “A Message to B.A.” echoes the beginning of his song “Turn Off the Radio” from AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted: Ice Cube is first addressed by the name Benedict Arnold (after the infamous traitor of the American Revolution) but then named outright in a torrent of abuse from both the group and its fans: When we see yo’ ass, we gon’ cut yo’ hair off and fuck you with a broomstick. Think about it, punk muthafucka, spoken by MC Ren. The N.W.A–Ice Cube feud eventually escalated, both on record and in real life. AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted had avoided direct attacks on N.W.A, but on Death Certificate, Ice Cube’s second full-length release, he retaliated. He sampled and mocked the “Message to B.A.” skit before embarking on a full-blown tirade, the infamous “No Vaseline.” In a series of verses, Ice Cube verbally assaulted the group: You lookin’ like straight bozos / I saw it comin’ that’s why I went solo / Kept on stompin’ / When y’all Muthafuckas moved Straight outta Compton / You got jealous when I got my own company / But I’m a man, and ain’t nobody humpin’ me . He also responded to members MC Ren, Dr. Dre, and Eazy-E individually to “100 Miles and Runnin'”, claiming I started off with too much cargo, dropped four niggaz / And now I’m makin’ all the dough, using homophobic metaphors to describe their unequal business relationship with Jerry Heller, who became the target of harsh insults: Get rid of that devil real simple / Put a bullet to his temple / Cuz you can’t be the ‘Niggaz 4 Life’ crew / With a white Jew tellin’ you what to do. The song attracted controversy for its antisemitism (the beginning of such accusations against Ice Cube during his affiliation with the Nation of Islam), based on the bashing of Heller’s religion; The track was omitted from the UK release, and later pressings included a censored version of the song. In September 1990, members of hip hop act Above the Law clashed with Ice Cube and his posse Da Lench Mob during the annual New Music Seminar conference, forcing the latter to flee the premises of Times Square’s Marriott Marquis, the venue of the event. On January 27, 1991, Dr. Dre assaulted Dee Barnes, host of the hip hop show Pump It Up, after its coverage of the N.W.A/Ice Cube beef. According to Rolling Stone reporter Alan Light:
He picked her up and “began slamming her face and the right side of her body repeatedly against a wall near the stairway” as his bodyguard held off the crowd. After Dre tried to throw her down the stairs and failed, he began kicking her in the ribs and hands. She escaped and ran into the women’s rest room. Dre followed her and “grabbed her from behind by the hair and proceeded to punch her in the back of the head.”
In response, Dre commented: “People talk all this shit, but you know, if somebody fucks with me, I’m gonna fuck with them. I just did it, you know. Ain’t nothing you can do now by talking about it. Besides, it ain’t no big thing—I just threw her through a door.”
The End of N.W.A (1991–1995)
1991’s Niggaz4Life would be the group’s final album. After Dr. Dre, The D.O.C. and Michel’le departed from Ruthless to join Death Row Records and allegations over Eazy-E being coerced into signing away their contracts (while however retaining a portion of their publishing rights), a bitter rivalry ensued. Dr. Dre began the exchange with Death Row’s first release, 1992’s Fuck Wit Dre Day (And Everybody’s Celebratin’), and its accompanying video featured a character named “Sleazy-E” who ran around desperately trying to get money. The insults continued on The Chronic with ” Ain’t .” Eazy-E responded in 1993 with the EP It’s On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa on the tracks “Real Muthaphuckkin G’s” and “It’s On.” Eazy-E accused Dr. Dre of being a homosexual, calling him the “she thang,” and criticizing Dre’s new image by calling him and Snoop “studio gangsters”. The music video for “Real Muthaphuckkin Gs” showed a still of Dre wearing make-up and a sequined jumpsuit. The photos dated back to Dr. Dre’s World Class Wreckin’ Cru days, when such fashion was common among West Coast electro hop artists, prior to N.W.A’s popularization of gangsta rap. Eazy-E kept dissing Dre and Death Row on most of his songs until his AIDS-related death on March 26, 1995. All bad blood finally ceased within the rest of the group. Dr. Dre and Ice Cube would later express their re-evaluated feelings to their old friend on 1999’s “What’s The Difference” and “Chin Check,” 2000’s “Hello,” and 2006’s “Growin’ Up” and in the 2011 music video “I Need a Doctor.”
Reunions and legacy (1995–present)
Having both parted with Ruthless Records on bad terms, tensions between Ice Cube and Dr. Dre eased on the other hand. Ice Cube made a cameo appearance in Dr. Dre’s “Let Me Ride” video in 1993. The two recorded the hit song “Natural Born Killaz” for Snoop Doggy Dogg’s 1994 short film and soundtrack Murder Was the Case and they also planned an album which was to be titled Heltah Skeltah. Later Ice Cube appeared on MC Ren’s album Ruthless for Life on the track “Comin’ After You”. MC Ren appeared on Dre’s 1999 album The Chronic 2001, and the three remaining N.W.A emcees would reunite for “Hello” on Ice Cube’s 2000 album War & Peace Vol. 2 (The Peace Disc). The West Coast and “gangsta” music scene had however fallen out of the spotlight since the death of Tupac Shakur in 1996, and it was only after Dr. Dre’s successful patronage of Eminem and Dre’s ensuing comeback album The Chronic 2001 that the genre and its artists would regain the national spotlight. 2000’s all-star Up In Smoke Tour would reunite much of the N.W.A and Death Row families, and during time spent on the road, Dre, Eminem, Ice Cube, MC Ren, and guest star Snoop Dogg began recording in a mobile studio. A comeback album entitled Not These Niggaz Again was planned (and would include DJ Yella, who had not been present on the tour).
However, due to busy and conflicting schedules as well as the obstacles of coordinating three different record labels (Priority, No Limit and Interscope), obtaining the rights to the name N.W.A and endorsing the whole project to gain exclusive rights, the album never materialized. Only two tracks from these sessions would be released: “Chin Check” (with Snoop Dogg as a member of N.W.A) from 1999’s Next Friday soundtrack and Hello from Ice Cube’s 2000 album War & Peace Vol. 2 (The Peace Disc). Both songs would appear on N.W.A’s remastered and re-released Greatest Hits. There would also be partial reunions on “Set It Off,” from Snoop Dogg’s Tha Last Meal (2000), which featured MC Ren and Ice Cube as well as former Death Row “inmates,” and The D.O.C.’s “The Shit,” from his 2003 album Deuce, which featured MC Ren, Ice Cube, Snoop Dogg and Six-Two. Dr. Dre and DJ Yella were present in the studio for the latter song. In addition to the Greatest Hits initially released by Priority in 1996, Capitol and Ruthless Records jointly released The N.W.A Legacy, Vol. 1: 1988-1998 in 1998, a compilation that contained songs by other rap artists and only three songs from the actual group but various solo tracks from the five members. The success of the album prompted a second volume, The N.W.A Legacy, Vol. 2, two years later. It emulated the format of its predecessor, containing only three genuine N.W.A tracks and many solo efforts by the crew members. In 2007, a new greatest hits package was released, entitled The Best of N.W.A: The Strength of Street Knowledge.
New Line Cinema representatives announced to Entertainment Weekly’s “Hollywood Insider Blog” that N.W.A’s story is in development to become a feature film for theatrical release in 2012. According to the Internet Movie Database, the script was researched and written by filmmaker S. Leigh Savidge and radio veteran Alan Wenkus, who worked closely with Eazy-E’s widow, Tomica Woods-Wright. Wright, Ice Cube, and Dr. Dre will act as producers of the film. As of September 2011, John Singleton was selected as director. Ice Cube and Singleton previously collaborated on Boyz n the Hood, a movie that was nominated for an Academy Award in several categories, and Ice Cube also played the part of the character “Fudge” in Singleton’s Higher Learning. The cast also has yet to be disclosed. To date, MC Ren and DJ Yella have not commented on whether or not they will be involved in the production. Casting calls began in the summer of 2010. There have been rumors of Lil Eazy E playing his late father Eazy-E, and Ice Cube’s son and fellow rapper O’Shea Jackson II playing his father as well.
Although the group disbanded in 1991, it left a lasting legacy on hip hop music in the following decades. Their influence (from their funky, bass-driven beats to their exaggerated lyrics) was evident throughout the 1990s and even into the present, and is often credited as bridging the White/Black American musical lines with their massive appeal to White America in the late 1980s. In Dr. Dre’s 1999 single Forgot About Dre the line “Who you think brought you the O.G.s, Eazy-Es, Ice Cube, and The D.O.C.s, the Snoop D-O-double-Gs, and the group that said ‘Motherfuck the police’?” outlines N.W.A’s importance in hip hop. In the same song, one of Eminem’s verse says “So what do you say to somebody you hate or anyone tryna bring trouble your way, Wanna resolve things in a bloodier way, Then just study a tape of N.W.A” refers to the negative reception of N.W.A’s works by the mainstream radio, considering their songs to be violent. A scene in 2005 single Hate It or Love It by Game featuring 50 Cent shows Tequan Richmond (portraying The Game) and Zachary Williams (playing 50 Cent in their youth) being caught spraypainting “N.W.A” on a wall, resulting in their subsequent arrest by two policemen. Also, the rapper Game has a tattoo that says N.W.A on the right side of his chest.
Main article: N.W.A discography
1988Straight Outta ComptonStudio album
Red Everything Movement